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Foam adapter for Ships machinery spaces

Fire protection on ships is provided by detection and fire-fighting equipment together with structural features which are intended to contain an outbreak of fire and the employment when required of non-combustible materials to prevent its spread.

Foam adaptor
Foam branch pipes (Figure below) which operate in a similar manner to those used in deck installations for tankers, are fitted for use with the hydrants in some machinery spaces and in particular for passenger ferry car decks. These are available in various sizes for operation at a range of pressures and outputs. The foam branch pipe is connected through a hose to the hydrant and the water flow produces a venturi effect which draws up the foam producing liquid through the pick-up tube, from the container. The action also draws in air. Mixing of the three components in the nozzle, causes formation of a jet of foam.

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Initially, only water issues from the branch pipe and the nozzle is directed away from the fire until foam appears. When the foam compound is exhausted, water will again appear at the nozzle. Foam continuity is achieved by dropping the pick-up tube in a bucket and keeping the bucket topped up with foam liquid,

Foam adapter
Fig: Foam adapter

Types of portable fire extinguisher

High-expansion foam

Uses foam with an expansion ratio of 900 to 1 in mild steel low-pressure piping. Pressure in the lines ranges from 4 to 5 bar. Foam compound in storage tanks is pumped to a foam generator. The system is required to deliver foam at a rate of one metre of compartment depth per minute.

Low expansion foam

Uses foam with an expansion ratio of 12 to 1 in mild steel low-pressure piping. Typical pressure in low expansion foam piping is 12 bar.

There are four principal types of portable extinguisher usually found on board ship. These are the soda-acid, foam, dry powder and carbon dioxide extinguishers. Details as below :
  1. Soda acid portable fire extinguisher
  2. The container of this extinguisher holds a sodium bicarbonate solution. The screw-on cap contains a plunger mechanism covered by a safety guard.

  3. Foam type portable fire extinguisher
  4. The main container is filled with sodium bicarbonate solution and a long inner polythene container is filled with aluminium sulphate

  5. Dry powder fire extinguishers
  6. The outer container contains sodium bicarbonate powder. A capsule of carbon dioxide gas is located beneath a plunger mechanism in the central cap

  7. CO2 portable fire extinguisher
  8. A very strong container is used to store liquid carbon dioxide under pressure

Fixed fire extinguishing installations

A variety of different fixed fire fighting installations exist, some of which are specifically designed for certain types of ship. A selection of the more general installations will now be outlined.
  1. Fire main system for cargo ships

  2. An outbreak of fire requires a source of ignition, the presence of combustible material and ample oxygen. Of the three factors, oxygen is provided in large quantities in machinery spaces, accommodation, dry cargo holds and tanker pumprooms by ventilation fans. Air supply trunkings are not only a source for a supply of oxygen to feed the fire but also have potential for carrying smoke from one area to another....

  3. Automatic water spray & water mist system for machinery protected area

  4. The automatic spray or sprinker system provides a network of sprinkler heads throughout the protected spaces. This system may be used in accommodation areas, and in machinery spaces with certain variations in the equipment used and the method of operation. ....

  5. Automatic foam induction system for machinery space fire

  6. Foam spreading systems are designed to suit the particular ship's requirements with regard to quantity of foam, areas to be protected, etc. Mechanical foam is the usual substance used, being produced by mixing foam making liquid with large quantities of water. Violent agitation of the mixture in air creates air bubbles in the foam. ...

  7. CO2 fire extinguishing installations for machinery spaces

  8. Fire extinguishing installations employing CO 2 stored under pressure at ambient temperature are extensively used to protect ships' cargo compartments, boiler rooms and machinery spaces. When released the CO 2 is distributed throughout the compartment, so diminishing the relative oxygen content and rendering the atmosphere inert....

  9. Inert gas systems, inert gas generator

  10. Inert gases are those which do not support combustion and are largely nitrogen and carbon dioxide. Large quantities suitable for fire extinguishing can be obtained by burning fuel in carefully measured amounts or by cleaning the exhaust gases from a boiler. ....

  11. Fire fighting Halon system

  12. A Halon storage system would be very similar to one using carbon dioxide except that fewer cylinders would be required. The liquefied Halon is usually pressurised in the cylinders with nitrogen in order to increase the speed of discharge. ....

Other important fire & safety equipments

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