Machinery Spaces
Home || Diesel Engines ||Boilers||Feed Systems ||Steam Turbines ||Fuel Treatment ||Pumps ||Refrigeration ||

Biological and Chemical Sewage Treatment Plants for Cargo Ship

The discharge of untreated sewage in controlled or territorial waters is usually banned by legislation. International legislation is in force to cover any sewage discharges within specified distances from land. As a result, and in order to meet certain standards all new ships have sewage treatment plants installed.

Untreated sewage as a suspended solid is unsightly. In order to break down naturally, raw sewage must absorb oxygen. In excessive amounts it could reduce the oxygen content of the water to the point where fish and plant life would die.

ships machinery spaces
container ships machinery info
Pungent smells are also associated with sewage as a result of bacteria which produce hydrogen sulphide gas. Particular bacteria present in the human intestine known as E, coli are also to be found in sewage. The E. coli count in a measured sample of water indicates the amount of sewage present.

Two particular types of sewage treatment plant are in use, employing either chemical or biological methods. The chemical method is basically a storage tank which collects solid material for disposal in permitted areas or to a shore collection facility. The biological method treats the sewage so that it is acceptable for discharge inshore.

Chemical sewage treatment

This system minimises the collected sewage, treats it and retains it until it can be discharged in a decontrolled area, usually well out to sea. Shore receiving facilities may be available in some ports to take this retained sewage.

This system must therefore collect and store sewage produced while the ship is in a controlled area. The liquid content of the system is reduced, where legislation permits, by discharging wash basins, bath and shower drains straight overboard. Any liquid from water closets is treated and used as flushing water for toilets. The liquid must be treated such that it is acceptable in terms of smell and appearance.

Various chemicals are added at different points for odour and colour removal and also to assist breakdown and sterilisation. A comminutor is used to physically break up the sewage and assist the chemical breakdown process.

Solid material settles out in the tank and is stored prior to discharge into the sullage tank: the liquid is recycled for flushing use. Tests must be performed daily to check the chemical dosage rates. This is to prevent odours developing and also to avoid corrosion as a result of high levels of alkalinity.

Biological sewage treatment

Fig:Biological sewage treatment plant

Biological sewage treatment

The biological system utilises bacteria to completely break down the sewage into an acceptable substance for discharge into any waters. The extended aeration process provides a climate in which oxygen-loving bacteria multiply and digest the sewage, converting it into a sludge. These oxygen-loving bacteria are known as aerobic.

The treatment plant uses a tank which is divided into three watertight compartments: an aeration compartment, settling compartment and a chlorine contact compartment .

The sewage enters the aeration compartment where it is digested by aerobic bacteria and micro-organisms, whose existence is aided by atmospheric oxygen which is pumped in. The sewage then flows into the settling compartment where the activated sludge is settled out. The clear liquid flows to the chlorinator and after treatment to kill any remaining bacteria it is discharged.

Tablets are placed in the chlorinator and require replacement as they are used up. The activated sludge in the settling tank is continuously recycled and builds up, so that every two to three months it must be partially removed. This sludge must be discharged only in a decontrolled area.

Related Info:

  1. Compressed Air Systems for various shipboard operations
  2. The main aim of a compressor, as the name suggests, is to compress air or any fluid in order to reduce its volume. Some of the main applications of compressors onboard ships are main air compressor, deck air compressor, AC compressor and refrigeration compressor. Failure to start or control air compressor can be inconvenient, costly and can carry risks, which need to be managed.....

  3. Marine air compressors working principles
  4. Control or instrument air supplies have particular requirements with regard to being moisture and oil free and without impurities. A special type of oil-free compressor may be used to supply control air or it may be treated after delivery from an ordinary air compressor. This treatment results in the air being filtered and dried in order to remove virtually all traces of oil, moisture and any atmospheric impurities.....

  5. Where are stabilising fins fitted?- function of it controlling ships motion
  6. Stabilising fins are fitted to ship's sides below the waterline to reduce rolling of the hull by wave action. The fins achieve this by imposing an equal and opposite motion. Retractable fins of aerofoil section use the forward velocity of the ship to create this opposing motion.....

  7. Coolers at sea- Shell and tube type coolers and plate type coolers
  8. Heat exchangers on board ship are mainly coolers where a hot liquid is cooled by sea water. There are some instances where liquid heating is required, such as heavy fuel oil heaters and sea water heaters for tank cleaning. Although being heat exchangers, the main condenser for a steam ship and the evaporator/distiller are dealt with separately .....

  9. Distillation system- Production of distilled water for ships use - The evaporation process
  10. Distillation is the production of pure water from sea water by evaporation and re-condensing. Distilled water is produced as a result of evaporating sea water either by a boiling or a flash process. This evaporation enables the reduction of the 32000 parts per million of dissolved solids in sea water down to the one or two present in distilled water. The machine used is called an 'evaporator', although the word 'distiller' is also used.....

  11. Oily water separator and filter unit for 15 parts per million purity
  12. Oil/water separators are used to ensure that ships do not discharge oil when pumping out bilges, oil tanks or any oil-contaminated space. International legislation relating to oil pollution is becoming more and more stringent in the limits set for oil discharge.....

  13. Sewage treatment on board- biological and chemical sewage treatment plant
  14. The discharge of untreated sewage in controlled or territorial waters is usually banned by legislation. International legislation is in force to cover any sewage discharges within specified distances from land. As a result, and in order to meet certain standards all new ships have sewage treatment plants installed.....

  15. Incinerator for ships
  16. Stricter legislation with regard to pollution of the sea, limits and, in some instances, completely bans the discharge of untreated waste water, sewage, waste oil and sludge. The ultimate situation of no discharge can be achieved by the use of a suitable incinerator. When used in conjunction with a sewage plant and with facilities for burning oil sludges, the incinerator forms a complete waste disposal package.....

Marine machineries - Useful tags

Marine diesel engines ||Steam generating plant ||Air conditioning system ||Compressed air ||Marine batteries ||Cargo refrigeration ||Centrifugal pump ||Various coolers ||Emergency power supply ||Exhaust gas heat exchangers ||Feed system ||Feed extraction pump || Flow measurement || Four stroke engines || Fuel injector || Fuel oil system || Fuel oil treatment ||Gearboxes || Governor || Marine incinerator || Lub oil filters || MAN B&W engine || Marine condensers || Oily water separator || Overspeed protection devices || Piston & piston rings || Crankshaft deflection || Marine pumps || Various refrigerants || Sewage treatment plant || Propellers || Power Plants || Starting air system || Steam turbines || Steering gear || Sulzer engine || Turbine gearing || Turbochargers || Two stroke engines || UMS operations || Drydocking & major repairs || Critical machinery || Deck machineries & cargo gears || Control and instrumentation ||Fire protection ||Engine room safety ||

Machinery is about working principles, construction and operation of all the machinery items in a ship intended primarily for engineers working on board and those who working ashore . For any remarks please Contact us

Copyright © 2010-2016 Machinery All rights reserved.
Terms and conditions of use
Read our privacy policy|| Home page||