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How an incinerator can be used in ships waste disposal package
Incinerator for ships:
Stricter legislation with regard to pollution of the sea, limits and, in some
instances, completely bans the discharge of untreated waste water,
sewage, waste oil and sludge. The ultimate situation of no discharge can
be achieved by the use of a suitable incinerator. When used in
conjunction with a sewage plant and with facilities for burning oil
sludges, the incinerator forms a complete waste disposal package.
One type of incinerator for shipboard use is shown in figure below .
The combustion chamber is a vertical cylinder lined with refractory
material. An auxiliary oil-fired burner is used to ignite the refuse and oil
sludge and is thermostatically controlled to minimise fuel consumption.
A sludge burner is used to dispose of oil sludge, water and sewage sludge
and works in conjunction with the auxiliary burner.
Combustion air is
provided by a forced draught fan and swirls upwards from tangential
ports in the base. A rotating-arm device accelerates combustion and also
clears ash and non-combustible matter into an ash hopper. The loading
door is interlocked to stop the fan and burner when opened.
Solid material, usually in sacks, is burnt by an automatic cycle of
operation. Liquid waste is stored in a tank, heated and then pumped to
the sludge burner where it is burnt in an automatic cycle. After use the
ash box can be emptied overboard.
Procedure for ships waste via Marine incinerator
Shipboard generated wastes can only be disposed of legally by the following two methods –
The availability and cost of disposal to shore based facilities and the trading constraints such as time in port, access at tanker terminals and other restrictions have made option “b” less attractive.
Oil and sewage sludge incineration may take place in main or auxiliary power plants or boilers, but not whilst in ports or enclosed water.
- Disposal by onboard Incineration
- Disposal to a shore based facility
Waste incineration onboard sea going ships is regulated by IMO MARPOL 73/78 Resolution MEPC.176(40), adopted 10 October 2008 and IMO MARPOL Annex VI, Chapter III Regulation 16 and Appendix IV – Requirements for Control of Emissions from Ships – Shipboard Incineration.
All new Incinerators installed onboard a ship on or after 1st January 2000 require compliance with the above regulations and shall have IMO Type Approved Certificate.
It is prohibited to incinerate:
Polyvinyl chlorides (PVCs) can only be incinerated in IMO type approved incinerators.
In accordance with the Helsinki Convention, all ships are prohibited to use their incinerators whilst in the Baltic Sea area. See Attached “Clean Seas Guide Baltic States” for an overview of the regulations governing this area.
- Residues of cargoes subject MARPOL Annex I, II, III
- Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB)
- Garbage containing heavy metals, defined in Annex V
- Refined petroleum products containing halogens
- Sewage sludge and sludge oil either of which are not generated onboard the ship
- Exhaust gas cleaning system residues.
The following conditions must also be met:
Incinerators without IMO type approval Certificate or installed before 1st January 2000 can still be used for burning SLUDGE OIL and solid waste provided this does not contain any plastic or synthetic materials.
In addition to the above, the following criteria must be established.
- Personnel responsible for operation of any incinerator shall be trained.
- Manufacturer’s manual for the incinerator shall be available onboard.
- Minimum flue gas temperature is 850 degrees Centigrade.
- The unit shall reach 600 degrees Centigrade within 5 minutes after start up.
- Monitoring of flue gas outlet temperature required.
Please keep this information accessible for the daily use of the staff who are assigned to operate the incinerator.
- Quantify and designate Sludge preparation tanks for ships using heavy fuels: 2% of daily consumption.
- Quantify Incinerator use: 1% of the bunker consumption plus 2-3 hours for solid waste incineration.
- Owners must decide on the number of hours per day that the Incinerator should be allowed to work. Generally 8-12 hours per day.
- Consideration should be made for ships trading in ECA areas (e.g. Baltic Sea) where incineration is not allowed. Put up suitable notices.
- Please confirm that your vessel has a manual for the Incinerator.
- The Operator must be trained in the use of the Incinerator by the Chief Engineer and records of this training must be maintained.
- Compressed Air Systems for various shipboard operations
The main aim of a compressor, as the name suggests, is to compress air or any fluid in order to reduce its volume. Some of the main applications of compressors onboard ships are main air compressor, deck air compressor, AC compressor and refrigeration compressor. Failure to start or control air compressor can be inconvenient, costly and can carry risks, which need to be managed.....
- Marine air compressors working principles
Control or instrument air supplies have particular requirements with regard to being moisture and oil free and without impurities. A special type of oil-free compressor may be used to supply control air or it may be treated after delivery from an ordinary air compressor. This treatment results in the air being filtered and dried in order to remove virtually all traces of oil, moisture and any atmospheric impurities.....
- Coolers at sea- Shell and tube type coolers and plate type coolers Heat exchangers on board ship are mainly coolers where a hot liquid is cooled by sea water. There are some instances where liquid heating is required, such as heavy fuel oil heaters and sea water heaters for tank cleaning. Although being heat exchangers, the main condenser for a steam ship and the evaporator/distiller are dealt with separately .....
- Distillation system- Production of distilled water for ships use - The evaporation process
Distillation is the production of pure water from sea water by evaporation and re-condensing. Distilled water is produced as a result of evaporating sea water either by a boiling or a flash process. This evaporation enables the reduction of the 32000 parts per million of dissolved solids in sea water down to the one or two present in distilled water. The machine used is called an 'evaporator', although the word 'distiller' is also used.....
- Oily water separator and filter unit for 15 parts per million purity
Oil/water separators are used to ensure that ships do not discharge oil when pumping out bilges, oil tanks or any oil-contaminated space. International legislation relating to oil pollution is becoming more and more stringent in the limits set for oil discharge.....
Sewage treatment on board- biological and chemical sewage treatment plantThe discharge of untreated sewage in controlled or territorial waters is usually banned by legislation. International legislation is in force to cover any sewage discharges within specified distances from land. As a result, and in order to meet certain standards all new ships have sewage treatment plants installed.....
- Incinerator for ships Stricter legislation with regard to pollution of the sea, limits and, in some instances, completely bans the discharge of untreated waste water, sewage, waste oil and sludge. The ultimate situation of no discharge can be achieved by the use of a suitable incinerator. When used in conjunction with a sewage plant and with facilities for burning oil sludges, the incinerator forms a complete waste disposal package.....
Marine machineries - Useful tags
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