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Boiler arrangement & Fuel oil burning process - various designs burners

Various design burners : Marine boilers currently burn residual low-grade fuels. This fuel is stored in double-bottom tanks from which it is drawn by a transfer pump up to settling tanks. Here any water in the fuel may settle out and be drained away.

The high-pressure fuel is supplied to a burner which it leaves as an atomised spray . The burner also rotates the fuel droplets by the use of a swirl plate. A rotating cone of tiny oil droplets thus leaves the burner and passes into the furnace. Various designs of burner exist, the one just described being known as a 'pressure jet burner' .

The 'rotating cup burner' atomises and swirls the fuel by throwing it off the edge of a rotating tapered cup. The 'steam blast jet burner', atomises and swirls the fuel by spraying it into a high-velocity jet of steam. The steam is supplied down a central inner barrel in the burner.

The air register is a collection of flaps, vanes, etc., which surrounds each burner and is fitted between the boiler casings. The register provides an entry section through which air is admitted from the windbox. Air shut-off is achieved by means of a sliding sleeve or check. Air flows through parallel to the burner, and a swirler provides it with a rotating motion. The air is swirled in an opposite direction to the fuel to ensure adequate mixing . High-pressure, high output marine watertube boilers are roof fired . This enables a long flame path and even heat transfer throughout the furnace. The fuel entering the furnace must be initially ignited in order to burn.

pressure jet burner

Fig:pressure jet burner

Rotating cup burner

Fig:Rotating cup burner

Steam blast jet burner

Fig:Steam blast jet burner

Air register for side fired boiler

Fig:Air register for side fired boiler

Once ignited the lighter fuel elements burn first as a primary flame and provide heat to burn the heavier elements in the secondary flame. The primary and secondary air supplies feed their respective flames. The process of combustion in a boiler furnace is often referred to as 'suspended flame' since the rate of supply of oil and air entering the furnace is equal to that of the products of combustion leaving.

Boiler fuel oil supply system

Fig:Boiler fuel oil supply system

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Fuel oil burning process - various design burners

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Boiler arrangement - combustion process - supply of air

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Pressure jet burner,Rotating cup burner,Steam blast jet burner & Air register for side fired boiler

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